The land of 5-rivers, population-wise the largest, and once known as the granary of east, Punjab is the lifeline of Pakistan.
To the North of the Punjab is the Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa Province and the federal capital area of Islamabad, to the North-East is Azad Kashmir, to its South-East is India (Indian Punjab & Rajasthan), to the South-West is the province of Sindh while to the West are Baluchistan and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA).
The province is predominantly on plain level, however, there are some hilly areas in the North-West and extreme South-West. There is also a plateau adjacent to the mountains known as the Potohar plateau and a desert belt in the South Eastern part known as Cholistan.
All the major rivers of the country namely Indus, Jhelum, Chanab, Ravi, & Sutlaj flow through this province. They originate from the Himalayas and pass from North-West to South-West. They are primeval in nature and the volume of water increases in the summer after the monsoon rains, resulting sometimes in floods.
Punjab is the most populous province of Pakistan. According to the 1998 census, the population of the province is 7,25,85,000. The population density is 353 persons per square kilometer as compared to the national figure of 164. It contains several major cities of the country: Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Multan and Gujranwala.
The people of Punjab ethnically belong to a pluralistic pattern of life but they have a common identity. They have one common faith, Islam, and they proudly share its glorious traditions in their thought and conduct. In their religious sensibility, in folklore, in regional and domestic culture and in their hopes and aspirations the people have a common identity. The dialects spoken in different regions of the land have a common vocabulary and a shared heritage. The people of Punjab also have a shared spiritual experience which has been disseminated by Tassawwaf and can be witnessed on the occasion of the remembrance festivals held on the Urs of great Sufi Saints.